Tag Archives: Pollinators

Rock Orchids ~ Tricksters Deluxe

I’m packing my bags (yet again), this time for another trip to North America. The thought of late summer in the Pacific North West is enticing, but at the same time I hate the thought of missing out on the rock orchids here in Sydney.

D. speciosum, about to flower
D. speciosum, about to flower

This is one of those annoying times of year. From inside the house the garden looks inviting – blue sky, sun, birds, wattles and other flowers, and lots of enjoyable work to do. However, step outside and the cold wind bites, the skies cloud over, rain suddenly arrives, everything loses its charm, and one’s big desire is to get back indoors.

Just at this time of increasing annoyance, the rock orchids burst forth. These glorious, mass-flowering beauties are native to this area. They love living in sandstone. They don’t ask for a lot of sun, they’re happy enough in shade. They don’t ask for a lot of nutrients, they grow on rocks. They don’t demand much at all, and yet they manage this annual abundance of glorious flowers. When I get annoyed, I think of these orchids: how they thrive amongst the stones, and bring blessings of beauty to everyone who has ever wondered if winter would ever end!

Yesterday I was hit by a terrible thought: what if there were no more rock orchids on earth? In truth, these beautiful plants are not threatened, although their numbers in the wild are down because habitat is depleted. I wasn’t hit by fear for orchids, exactly. Rather I was jolted by that crushing realisation that we are living amongst terrible losses. The losses are cascading and we don’t know where, or if, they will stop. Almost anything could be at risk; most probably almost everything is at risk. I went rushing off to the native garden to see if the orchids were blooming yet, as they always come out first over there.

Sunpho, (CC)
D. speciosum

One of my former research colleagues, the late Frank Fenner, predicted that in a hundred years or so the human species will have driven itself to extinction. His views are extreme, but they touch on this crucial point: we are driving the earth into greater and greater loss of ecosystems; we are stimulating extinction cascades that are expanding rapidly and in many cases unstoppably and unpredictably; we are producing the most extravagant amounts of toxins, garbage and waste; and we are consuming and wasting all that lives in the most careless fashion. Whether the world goes on with us or without us, it will be a world radically disfigured by us. The kind of time that it will take for the earth to recover diversity and stability is beyond our comprehension.

Often when trying to think about what seems unthinkable I have to remind myself that answers to big questions about life do not arise from one species alone. Our lives are held within sustaining webs of life, and all our philosophy, and all our action, and all our desires unfold most effectively when we pay attention to the others.

We humans are not alone here on earth. Other creatures are in these same webs: there are no other webs.

For today I am turning to rock orchids and wondering about their lives. I don’t want to extract a moral lesson, or turn them into an allegory. I just want to cherish them more deeply by understanding them better. And what a story their lives tell!

In my area the main rock orchids are Dendrobium species: the yellow D. speciosum and the ‘pink rock orchid’ D. kingianum. They are lithophytes meaning that they live on rocks: their long aerial roots find crevices both to hold on to and from which to access nutrients.

D. kingianum
D. kingianum

These are very low nutrient creatures; they get their main sustenance from air, rain, debris and their own dead tissue. Some of what they glean they store in ‘pseudobulbs’ as a hedge against hard times, particularly dry spells. The rock orchids themselves provide habitat for others – fungi of course, and also animals and bacteria. They are home to a beetle known as the Dendrobium beetle. The stems are edible; they were eaten by Aboriginal people and are opportunistically browsed by other plant eaters.

Another side of this low nutrient story is the strong symbiotic mutualism they share with a microscopic fungus. This mutually beneficial relationship is known as a mycorrhiza. Orchid and fungus are not parasitic on each other, since both seem to flourish, but the best known fact seems to be that orchids simply could not live and reproduce without their fungi. In fact, orchid seeds are so low in nutrients that they cannot germinate without the help of these symbionts who supply the developing plant with nutrients until it is able to photosynthesize. Given the cycles of drought that characterise Australia’s ENSO-driven climate, new generations of rock orchids may have long periods of dependency.

Sunpho (CC)
Sunpho (CC)

Yet another side of this story is orchids’ relationship with pollinators. This is not symbiotic, at least as far as is now known. Botanists talk about lures and rewards: angiosperms invite or lure others through their dazzling brilliance of colour, scent and shape, and they ‘reward’ their visitors with nutrients. Rock orchids are among the tricksters in the world of lures and rewards. They produce great, showy, masses of flowers, and when the sun shines their fragrance comes forth.

DSC01895

Orchids offer up all the signs that send forth the great angiosperm message: ‘nectar’. This is explained in delightfully technical language by two orchid scientists:

‘Potential pollinators of Dendrobium speciosum are attracted to the plant by large, cream to yellow, finely segmented, aromatic inflorescences. Plants in natural populations flower synchronously, producing a massive display. Osmophores scattered over the perianth produce a strong, sweet scent in sunny weather. Nectar-seeking insects are guided to the central, reproductive area of the flower by the colour gradation of the perianth, including an area of high U.V. reflection near the centre, and a bright yellow ridge along the labellum. A tube formed by the labellum and column directs the potential pollinators.’

In the words of these scientists, this glorious invitation is akin to ‘false advertising’.

The pollinators (mainly bees) come and do the work of pollination, but they get no reward because in spite of all the showy appearance there is no nectar. Unlike the mistletoes I discussed in an earlier essay that get on in the world though abundant and promiscuous generosity, rock orchids get on through targeted deception.

These brilliant tricksters have developed fabulously enticing beauty. The human fascination with orchids is just as keen (I imagine) as that of bees. And yet the delicacy of the flowers is part of an extremely successful adaptation to harsh conditions. Their way of life is anchored at the edge of the nutrient world and is adapted to many extremes. From 45° heat in summer (115F) to winter frosts, through winds, droughts, bushfires and deluges, rock orchids hold on in their stony bastions and put forth great masses of flowers year after year except when recovering from bushfires. The great confederacy of Orchidaceae has been around for perhaps 130 million years, and the orchids here in Sydney are probably much the same as their direct ancestors who were here with the dinosaurs.

The diversity of their interactions is captivating: they are food for some creatures, including humans; they are symbionts with others. And then they are tricksters with yet others! Symbiotic, delicate, tough, fragrant and with great survival strategies, their multispecies complexities testify to the diversity of interactions that are woven into the webs of life.

All praise to orchids ~ Every leaf, every stem, every tough little kiss of life.

D. kingianum
D. kingianum

© Deborah Bird Rose (2014)

Resources:

Frank Fenner’s article (view here)

On symbiotic mutualism between orchids and fungi, see ‘hunter valley backyard nature

On ‘false advertising’, see ‘The Pollination Biology of Dendrobium speciosum Smith: a Case of False Advertising?’ by AT Slater and DM Calder, published in the Australian Journal of Botany 36(2) 145 – 158, 1988.

Creature-Languages

Perhaps the funniest words on Earth come from Mundari, a language spoken by tribal peoples in east India, Bangladesh and Nepal. One of the greats is ribuy-tibuy. It means ‘the sound, sight, or motion of a fat person’s buttocks rubbing together as they walk’. Another fine term is rawa-dawa, ‘the sensation of suddenly realising you can do something reprehensible, and no-one is there to witness it’. The Mundari terms belong to a terrific word category that seems to be lacking in English – the ideophone. These words encode sight, sound, smell or feelings within one encompassing term.

Human language is a marvellous capability, both biologically based and socially learned. One of the markers of our being a species is that we humans can all learn each others’ languages. Along with that capacity comes the sense of kinship – we (all of us human language participants) can appreciate the others – their humour, their complexity, their obscurities, their differences, their occasional bizarreness.  And of course we appreciate (or just as often grumble about) the changing vivacity (or, to some, the lack of respect for tradition) of our own language(s).

speech bubble

The capacity for learning is built into our brains, just as the capacity for speech is built into our larynx and windpipe. Actual languages, though, are incredibly diverse in both their structures and their vocabularies. There are languages that pack whole sentences into a single complex word, languages that use sounds that are difficult both to make and to distinguish, languages like signing that don’t use sounds at all, languages that have whole categories of words that other languages don’t have, and a thousand other variations. Of course we love our languages! We learn them and develop our skills with them throughout life; we play with them, and express many of our deepest thoughts, fears, loves, emotions and dreams in them.

In many ways we become ourselves, as individuals and as members of cultural and social groups, through language.

Cricket, by Mulacmail (CC)
Cricket, by Mulacmail (CC)

It is not surprising that for many people language is another of those markers of a boundary erected to separate humans from other living beings. But here again, not all humans take a human-centric view of languages. One of the books I keep coming back to is The Community of Those Who Have Nothing in Common. Alphonso Lingis takes this broad and inclusive view of language:

‘Of course the language of gregarious insects, ants and bees, is representational, is governed by correspondence with the layout of things, and is a kinesics of truth. But language begins with the evolution of organs for vocalization among insects not socialised into colonies, whose vocalizations consist entirely of a seductive chant. Their organs … [are] reiterating and reaffirming the forces of beauty, health, and superabundant vitality.’

In brief: human language is one mode of expression within the wider eloquence of Earth life.

Many of the Aboriginal people who taught me were quite clear that other creatures have their own languages. It is not surprising that we cannot understand them; they are who they are and we are who we are. Thinking of them as language creatures is part of the wider mode of understanding the others as creatures not so unlike ourselves.

'Brolga Talking' by David Jenkins (CC)
‘Brolga Talking’ by David Jenkins (CC)

Not only language, then, but other forms of culture as well may be part of Earth life. One of the old people from whom I have learned so much in North Australia was Doug Campbell. In his words: ‘birds got ceremony of their own – brolga, turkey, crow, hawk, white and black cockatoo – all got ceremony, women’s side, men’s side, … everything.’ Plants are sentient too, and, according to many Aboriginal people, the earth itself has culture and power within it. In this line of thought, we are all culture-creatures: we are intelligent, we act with purpose, we communicate and take notice, we participate in a world of multiple purposes. It is a multi-cultural world from inside the earth right on through.

My friend Richard Nelson spoke with and from Indigenous perspectives in his recent speech on Earth languages (view here). In totally engaging manner and style, he was making the profound point that Earth’s expressivity includes much that is not alive in the usual sense of the term, like wind and ice. He concluded:

The whole Earth is one great language family.

I can almost hear the sceptics saying that at the very least, our languages are more complex than those of others. Perhaps this is so. A major new study of human languages concludes that we are the only known species whose communication system varies fundamentally in both form and content. The caveat is that very little is known about other nonhuman languages. But does it follow that love of our kind of language means that it is somehow the best of all possible languages?

The poet Peter Boyle addresses these questions as part of a fascinating article called ‘Being Job – In Three Parts’. He is musing on the Biblical Book of Job, and reflecting on the fact that Job addressed G-d, and G-d answered Job. But in what language? Peter writes:

‘It seems reasonable to suppose that G-d has no intrinsic preference for English over Urdu, Pashtun over Aramaic, Sanskrit over Pitjantjatjara. The language spoken by the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands would seem as close to his heart as Homeric Greek or old Slavonic. It would be difficult not to assert that G-d would be equally at home in the elaborate grammar of turtles as in the speech of finches, that the soaring discourse of the eagle carries no more and no less charm than the meditative vibration of hornets.’

As with G-d, so with Earth: expressivity is the way of life, and we are all part of it.

If language is a mode of expressing and affirming forces of beauty, health, and vitality, as Lingis tells us, must we limit our attention to sounds? After all, some human languages are soundless, so why not other creature-languages as well?

Martin Burd is an evolutionary ecologist at Monash University. Recently he published a report on research carried out by an international team: ‘Colourful language – it’s how Aussie birds and flowers “speak”’. He notes that much of the colour we see in the nonhuman world adorns flowers and birds. But, he says, ‘we are accidental eavesdroppers on the visual conversations in which they are engaged’. Colourful birds are signalling to potential mates. Colourful flowers also search for mates, Burd tells us, but they do so by first communicating to pollinators, many of whom are birds.

The flowers that appear red to humans have evolved to appeal to the visual system of honeyeaters. Burd concluded that: ‘… many flowering species had evolved to “talk” to birds using a very particular set of colour “words”.’ The scientists concluded that this convergence of flower colour and bird visual system had probably evolved independently far more times than would be expected if it were random, and the next phase of the research will investigate these relationships on other continents with other bird-flower mutualisms.

'Honeyeater Heaven', by John Powell (CC)
‘Honeyeater Heaven’, by John Powell (CC)

I love the thought of us humans being ‘accidental eavesdroppers’. It is such a wonderful reminder that the great communicative, expressive Earth is not all about us. At the same time, of course, some creatures do, from time to time, address a human. The invitation to play is well known, while the growl that says ‘back off’ is a readily identifiable example of a great scheme of expressive messages saying ‘don’t touch!’. We are probably hard-wired as mammals to get many of these messages without having to stop and think too closely.

Much of our engagement with the expressive languages of Earth, though, calls on our imagination, knowledge, and, as Richard Nelson would say, our wisdom.

To be part of the world in which others also communicate in their own languages is, for the human, an opportunity to imagine one’s self sharing worlds with others. We do this all the time with stories, jokes, songs, images, and, of course, poetry. Most of the time, it must be said, we do it on our terms.

One of my favourite poems by Peter Boyle refuses the temptation to draw others into our worlds. ‘Cicada’ comes from the prize-winning book Apocrypha. This is a complex book in which poems are presented as the work of various imagined poets whose own imaginings find their way into both lyric and prose poetry. The great theme of expressiveness runs through all the work. The (imagined) author of ‘Cicada’ is Irene Philologos, and her poetic imagination takes her into an insect world.

Hanging upside down
perched in its own
Heaven
the cicada sings:
“I have eaten and am full.
This
is good.”
Does it sing for us?
Possibly.
If we too have been touched all over by fire
If we have balanced for hours
on the infinite porosity of earth
and know what it’s like
to be the casket of a time-beat
ticking away at metamorphosis
If at times our head and arms have wavered
like a delicate carapace flooded
by all the sky wants us to take in
If we can imagine the dryness of wind
caressing our black shell
all through the hot days
all through the fire of nights
when our eyes are beads of hard blackness
and our frame
breaks open to the homeless language of wind
If we can imagine ourselves
an assemblage of shell and flesh
scattered by the serene indifference of life
If we can call all this
happiness.

(from Irene Philologos, A poetic journal of ten years in Boeotia © Peter Boyle)

© Deborah Bird Rose (2014)

 

Cicada, by Colin Howley (CC)
Cicada, by Colin Howley (CC)
ResourcesInformation on human languages is drawn from an article by Evans and Levinson (read here).
Peter Boyle’s essay on Job is found in the book Sacred Australia: Post-secular considerations. Information on Peter Boyle’s book Apocrypha can be found here.
Alphonso Lingis: The Community of Those Who Have Nothing in Common
Martin Burd’s fascinating article can be found here.
A few years ago I wrote an essay with my colleagues Thom van Dooren and Stuart Cooke called ‘Ravens at Play’ in which we reflected on some of the dilemmas of being addressed by others. (view here)