Tag Archives: David Suzuki

The Goodness of Salmon

Our festive season here in Sydney was mostly damp: sultry and tropical at times, at other times chilly, but persistently wet, wet, wet. Whenever the rain carries on like this I think of Seattle in all its watery glory, from salt water to fresh, and from drizzle and showers through to sudden squalls and wild horizontal lashings of the most torrential rain. Love them or not, these rains are essential to the bountiful, moody, temperate rainforests that make the Pacific North West so special. The greatest concentration of biomass on earth is found in these forests, more even than in the Amazon, and one of the great scientific questions has been: how do the trees do it?

Hoh Rainforest, Elizabeth Gomm (CC)
Hoh Rainforest, Elizabeth Gomm (CC)

David Suzuki offered a surprisingly elegant and complex answer. He pointed out that while rain is essential, it is also the case that it washes nutrients out of the soil. Those months-long downpours take away nutrients at a rate that would seem to make huge forests impossible. So: where on earth does the actual fertility come from?

The Answer: Salmon!  And therein lies a true story of life’s goodness.

Sockeye salmon run, Todd Radenbaugh (CC)
Sockeye salmon, Todd Radenbaugh (CC)

The scientific analysis of the relationship between forests and salmon is fairly recent. The evidence comes from nitrogen. It is possible to distinguish two types of nitrogen, one that is land based (14N) and one that is ocean based (15N). Analysis of the forest, from trees to soils, shows that the main nutrient is ocean-based nitrogen.

Salmon hatchlings make their way to the ocean and live there for several years, consuming foods such as plankton that are rich in ocean based nitrogen. When it is time for them to spawn, they return to the river in which they hatched, swimming upstream in order to reproduce and die. Along the way they are prey to a great diversity of animals, especially bears.

Doug Brown (CC)
Doug Brown (CC)

Salmon and bears – how iconic! Bears grab fish out of the water and take them back into the forest for a private feast. They gobble up the choice bits and then return to the river for more. They transfer from river to forest upwards of 60 million kilos of salmon every year in British Columbia alone! The forests become rich in salmon carcases, and all manner of birds and other scavengers eat the remains.

The bears go on their way in the forests, pooping nitrogen rich fertilizer. The last remains of the salmon become food for flies; the flies lay eggs (on both salmon remains and poop) that hatch out as maggots and transform into pupae. Then, in a moment of perfect synchrony, zillions of nutritious flies emerge just in time for the annual northern migration of many insect-eating birds. Among them are the beautiful little olive-sided flycatchers who fly from Central and South America to the northern forests and back every year.

Olive-sided Flycatcher, Mike's Birds (CC)
Olive-sided Flycatcher, Mike’s Birds (CC)

And so vast amounts of ocean based nitrogen are transferred to the forests, their inhabitants and their visitors. Indeed, the scientists have learned that they can correlate tree rings with salmon runs: the wider and healthier the tree ring (indicating greater annual growth), the bigger the salmon run that year.

Salmon not only benefit a great diversity of other creatures, including the mighty rainforest trees, they also benefit their own offspring. After spawning, the adults die. Their bodies are consumed by fungi which are themselves consumed by bacteria and other micro-organisms. Later the young salmon feed on these same micro-organisms, building strength for their journey back to the ocean. Indeed, salmon are food for almost everyone – in the course of their travels not only are they prey to bears and birds and humans, but also to whales, seals, dolphins and sea lions, and to larger fish including sharks; their decomposing bodies are consumed by micro-organisms; as youngsters they are scooped up by snakes and water birds ~ everybody eats them! And still they thrive, and still they carry the ocean’s bounty into the freshwater rivers, and into the forests, and into other land, sea and sky creatures.

'Seal snack', Larissa Saye (CC)
‘Seal snack’, Larissa Saye (CC)

The scientific analysis is fascinating, but it barely begins to capture the wild exuberance of this story. The transformation of fish into food sustains bears, humans, eagles, crows, otters, trees, microscopic river organisms and much more. In these transformations life itself is shifted across plant, animal, fungi and other kingdoms. The great nutritional loops conjoin land, sea and air, seasonal and migratory cycles, birth and death.

Eagle with fish, Jerry McFarland (CC)
Eagle with fish, Jerry McFarland (CC)

David Suzuki wanted to make a point about management. With all the connectivities and transformations that loop through species and individuals to form ecologies, it is clear that a forest is not just a collection of trees. And yet, from a management point of view, trees are to be managed by one bureaucracy, rivers by another, oceans by another, wildlife by another, fish by another; forestry, fishermen, hunters, and a myriad other human-centric interests argue passionately about their particular part of the great system. The real issue, however, is that the health of any part of this vibrant system is integral to and dependent on other parts of the same vibrant system. In Suzuki’s words, ‘… if we keep looking at our own self-interest without seeing the big picture … we are going to screw it up for sure.’

More than forests are at stake here – more than trees and salmon, more than bears and micro-organisms. The wildly entwined loops of transformation are the very practice of goodness in Earth life. The goodness of salmon, as with all goodness, lies both in their lives as lived for themselves and their offspring, and in the benefits others gain from them.

In a human-centric world of narrow ‘self-interest’ and stubborn resistance to recognition of entangled connectivities, it is good, I find, to think of the philosopher Lev Shestov. He argued for a kind of craziness that is exactly what is needed here. Craziness for Shestov meant that a person would immerse themselves in life that is specific in its time and place, situated in awareness of its entanglements with others, and fully committed to the complexities of birth and death. His craziness is a commitment to transience, flux and uncertainty, and perhaps part of the craziness is that none of these qualities offers a promise that leads to human complacency. Rather, uncertainty means that nothing can be taken for granted. And so craziness goes hand in hand with Earth’s exuberance. It offers joy in the form of commitment to transformation, metamorphosis, synchronicity, and shared, looping connectivities.

Mills (CC)
‘Tree of LIfe’, Mills (CC)

For us humans, to become crazy-in-love with the living world would mean becoming crazy for salmon and crazy for bears, crazy for forests, fungi, clear running rivers, healthy oceans, migrating birds, nitrogen and much more. We would become absolutely crazy for goodness.

At the end of the day, goodness is the way and the truth of living creatures, and craziness is a human being’s way of remaining part of it.

I find it hard to imagine becoming crazy for rain. Even while I treasure its gifts of life, the truth is that day after day of the stuff makes me fretful. It was a great delight, therefore, when the sun returned for a day or two. And so it is in this world of flux: nothing lasts forever, except perhaps the great earth herself, and change is yet another aspect of goodness.

© Deborah Bird Rose (2016)

Resources:

David Suzuki spoke on the Science Show (ABC Radio National – listen here).

Scientific research on salmon, bears and forests has been carried by Tom Reimchen, and James Helfield and Robert Naiman (among others).

Take-Back Time ~ Science and Economy

Dendrobium speciosum
Dendrobium speciosum

David Suzuki is one of the great moral leaders in the world today. For decades, now, he has advocated a changed culture, changed relationships between humanity and nature, and a shift in values away from self-centred opportunism and toward connectivity and mutualism. It was great to read the text of a recent speech and learn that he believes that many of our contemporary leaders, the Abbot government in Australia and the Stephen Harper government in Canada to name two relevant groups, could rightly be charged with ‘criminal negligence through wilful blindness’. Their willingness, indeed their raging eagerness, to trash the future in order to secure their own power and influence in the present is surely a crime against the generations to come. Under the label ‘intergenerational justice’ we recognise our ethical responsibilities to the future. If we trash those responsibilities, we will suffer for it, our children will suffer for it, their children and children’s children will suffer for it, and the great thriving mass of earthly life will suffer for it. To think in terms of generations is also to confront the fact that many generations will not come forth, as whole species of creatures (plants, animals, fungi and others) go extinct. For many, the word ‘future’ has no meaning.

Climate change is just one factor in the whole process of trashing the future, but it is a major factor, and one that should have been addressed forcefully decades ago, as many thoughtful analysts have told us. The Garnaut Review in Australia, the Stern Review in the UK, Al Gore in the USA, and the on-going work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change have all made it abundantly clear that it is better by every measure of social, economic and environmental well-being to take action sooner rather than later. So when Tony Abbot got rid of Australia’s Climate Commission, the disservice to our nation, our society, our environment and our future was potentially incalculable.

Lots of us aren’t willing to let that happen. The good news is that we have now entered the era of ‘take-back’. The newly established Climate Council will act “largely in the same way as the commission”, Tim Flannery tells us. It will continue the work of informing the public on climate change impacts. Anyone who doubts the value of the work of the Climate Commission should read Will Steffen’s report ‘The Angry Summer’. It details the facts of the 2012-2013 summer, including the fact that the Bureau of Meteorology had to add new hot colours to its diagrams to account for the new, off the top of the range, temperatures recorded around Australia this past year. The new Climate Council will rely on donations from the public, and the former climate commissioners will work pro bono. This is the moment to join the take-back: sign up, donate, and become part of a movement to take back climate science.

Take-back has been coming for a long time, and it is now shaping up in fascinating ways. Back in 1996 J-K Gibson-Graham published a wonderful book: The End of Capitalism (as we knew it). The key idea was that capitalism is not the only game in town: we all participate in numerous and diverse economies. The book was a feminist analysis that re-visioned alternative economies. Just a few weeks ago they published a new book: Take Back the Economy. The co-authors are Jenny Cameron and Stephen Healy, it is published by University of Minnesota Press, and it has the lovely subtitle: ‘An accessible guide to demystifying the economy and creating a more just and sustainable world’. The Press has done a great job in allowing the authors to produce a seriously deep and theoretically informed book that is still accessible way beyond the academic world. I particularly love the title of the last chapter: ‘Any time, anywhere’. Take Back the Economy affirms the capacity of every person everywhere to become involved in their own destiny.

A few weeks ago I interviewed Kathie Gibson. We sat amongst the rock orchids that grow prolifically in our sandstone area in south-west Sydney, and we talked about the key ideas of community economies. We discussed how ‘economy’ can be re-framed to encompass the work we do to survive well, and how the commons includes not just humans but other living beings and habitats. The video is now posted on the Environmental Humanities journal website.

Take-back matters both for the future and, equally, for today. Will we be puppets, manipulated by whatever coalition of power happens to jerk our strings? Or will we be active participants in our own lives and destinies?

Take-back time is exactly now.

©Deborah Bird Rose (2013)